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Rare Luck and Mortal Danger: Cows Appear from the Water


Folkloristika 3/1 (2018): 55‒68
Аuthor: Mihail Garder
Теxt: PDF

 

Contemporary narratives about water cows, though rare, retain the indirect association with vodyanoy as cows are told to have appeared in lakes or rivers where dark waters run deep. Compared with other regional traditions, the motif of water cows in the north-west of Russia is quite similar to the one in Finnish and Karelian legends – according to the Lauri Simonsuuri and Marjatta Jauhianen’s Index, various types of hiisi (genii loci) also possess herds of fat milky cows which humans can obtain by means of a particular trick. Beliefs and legends with this motif can also be found in Vepsian and Estonian folklore, although the examples given here are scarce for a comparative analysis of various national traditions.
Key words: water cows, water spirit, Russian folklore, Karelian folklore, Finnish folklore, beliefs, legends, mythology

 

S konca XIX v. neskolʹko tekstov o «vodjanyh korovah» bylo zapisano sobirateljami russkogo folʹklora na severo-zapade Rossii (južnaja Karelija, Vologodskaja oblastʹ i jug Arhangelʹskoj oblasti). Èti «vodjanye korovy» obyčno opisyvajutsja kak tučnye i dojnye i, sootvetstvenno, neobhodimye čeloveku; ranee èti korovy pripisyvalisʹ hozjajstvu vodjanogo, vodnomu duhu, kotoryj v XIX i XX vv. vstrečalsja v tekstah russkih memoratov i fabulatov, a v nastojaŝee vremja nositeljami tradicii v osnovnom sčitaetsja vydumannym personažem.

Sovremennye narrativy o «vodjanyh korovah», vstrečajuŝiesja dovolʹno redko, sohranjajut kosvennuju svjazʹ s vodjanym: korovy, soglasno ètim rasskazam, pojavljalisʹ vozle osobo glubokih mest na ozerah i rekah. Sravnenie s tradicijami drugih regionov pokazyvaet, čto motiv o «vodjanyh korovah», vstrečajuŝijsja na severo-zapade Rossii, vo mnogom shoden s motivom finskih i karelʹskih folʹklornyh rasskazov, vhodjaŝim v ukazatelʹ L. Simonsuuri i M. Jauhiajnen: različnye hijsi (duhi mest) vladejut stadami tučnyh dojnyh korov, kotorye čelovek možet zapolučitʹ s pomoŝʹju opredelennogo priema. Poverʹja i memoraty/fabulaty s ètim motivom byli zafiksirovany v vepsskom i èstonskom folʹklore, hotja privodimyh primerov nedostatočno dlja sravnitelʹnogo analiza raznyh nacionalʹnyh tradicij.
Ključevye slova: vodjanye korovy, vodjanoj, russkij folʹklor, karelʹskij folʹklor, finskij folʹklor, bylička, mifologičeskij rasskaz